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The Department of Near Eastern Studies offers language instruction in the four main modern languages of the Near East/Middle East: Arabic, Hebrew, Persian and Turkish as well as ancient and other less commonly taught languages, such as Sumerian, Akkadian and Ugaritic.
Students can take the modern languages to fulfill their language requirements for the College of Arts & Sciences. For more information on who to contact to take language placement exams, see modern languages below.
The department now offers a minor in Arabic.
Arabic is the official language of 22 countries and the fifth-most spoken language in the world. It is also one of six official languages of the United Nations. In addition to its global political importance, Arabic opens the door to an immensely rich and diverse cultural heritage in the Middle East and beyond. Proficiency in Arabic also opens the way for many graduates to obtain exciting jobs in academia, the government and think tanks.
The Department integrates the Arabic dialects and Modern Standard Arabic together in the classroom. From Day 1, you will be learning to communicate the way that native speakers do with one another. Students study from the ‘Arabiyyat al-Naas series, developed right here at Cornell. http://neareasternstudies.cornell.edu/content/speach-and-reading-key-learning-arabic
In addition to the regular six-semester sequence of Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced Arabic, the Arabic Program offers a variety of courses including Qur’anic Arabic, Media Arabic, Arabic through Film and Modern Arabic Literature. The Program also offers an elementary course designed specifically for heritage speakers of Arabic who wish to develop their reading and writing skills. Furthermore, the Accelerated Arabic Course serves as a springboard prior to an immersion language program during the spring semester in an Arabic-speaking country.
Arabic language placement exam: contact Munther Younes
Opportunities available outside the classroom:
Many students study abroad through Cornell-approved programs or through fellowships and scholarships to the Arab world. On campus, Cornell students can live in the Arabic Language House and participate in cultural activities and Arabic-only weekly meals. There are also many independent student organizations on campus that sponsor Arabic language and cultural activities throughout the school year.
The Cornell Language House holds weekly Conversation Hours in Arabic. These are open to everyone. The Spring 2018 schedule is TBD. Contact Munther Younes for more information.
Arabic courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- ARAB 1200 - Intensive Arabic I
- ARAB 1201 - Elementary Arabic I
- ARAB 1202 - Elementary Arabic II
- ARAB 1203 - Intermediate Arabic I
- ARAB 2201 - Arabic for Heritage Speakers
- ARAB 2202 - Intermediate Arabic II
- ARAB 2204 - Introduction to Quranic Arabic
- ARAB 3201 - Advanced Arabic I
- ARAB 3202 - Advanced Arabic II
- ARAB 3206 - Intensive Arabic II
- ARAB 3210 - Arabic Grammar and Writing (In Arabic)
- ARAB 3212 - Quran and Commentary
- ARAB 3700 - Arabic Language Through Film
- ARAB 4200 - Modern Arabic Literature
- ARAB 4203 - Current Events in Arabic Media
- ARAB 4212- Tales from the Thousand and One Nights
- JUARA 4221 - Judeo-Arabic
- ARAB 4225 - Comparative Semitic Linguistics
- ARAB 4867 - In Search of the Original Quran
- ARAB 6201 - Readings in Medieval Arabic Literature
- JUARA 6221 - Judeo-Arabic
Whether you are preparing for travel abroad or are passionate about achieving fluency in a language that is important to you, when studying Hebrew at Cornell you will be part of a close knit group of students and faculty. Courses are built to enhance not only contemporary communication skills, but also to give students a window through which to understand the past. So, join us in learning about the many aspects of Jewish and Israeli culture, society, literature and history!
Hebrew (or 'Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family, spoken by more than eight million people in Israel and around the world.
Modern Hebrew is a fusion of old and new, native and foreign. Between the end of the Biblical period and the beginning of Modern Hebrew, there exists a gap of roughly two thousand years during which Hebrew was used exclusively as a literary and liturgical language, and was not used as a spoken language. It was taught mostly for religious purposes but had no native speakers.
When the revival of the Modern Hebrew language started towards the end of the 19th century, people soon realized that Biblical Hebrew could not be the sole source for vocabulary needed for modern daily life. A need to supplemental Hebrew vocabulary arose. Vocabulary items that did not exist in the Bible were supplemented by other sources, such as religious texts and medieval poetry. At times, additional sources needed to be created or borrowed and were formed using already existing forms and compiled with the linguistic principles of Biblical Hebrew.
Courses offered through the Department of Near Eastern Studies introduce our students to the culture, language and literature of modern Israel. The courses support students at their current level of Hebrew but also focus on continuing the development and enhancement of the student's command of grammar as well as writing, reading, speaking, and comprehension.
Hebrew language placement exam: contact Nava Scharf
Opportunities available outside the classroom:
Cornell offers opportunities to study abroad (a semester or a year) in Israel at Hebrew University, Tel-Aviv University, Haifa University and Ben-Gurion University. For details on studying abroad in Israel, contact Cornell Study Abroad. For a glimpse of some of what Israel has to offer watch this video.
Modern Hebrew courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- HEBRW 1101 - Elementary Modern Hebrew I
- HEBRW 1102 - Elementary Modern Hebrew II
- HEBRW 1103 - Elementary Modern Hebrew III
- HEBRW 2100 - Intermediate Modern Hebrew
- HEBRW 3101 - Advanced Modern Hebrew I
- HEBRW 3102 - Advanced Modern Hebrew II: Hebrew in a Changing World
- HEBRW 3104- Advanced Hebrew Through Media and Literature
- HEBRW 3108 - Israeli Culture Through Literature
- Center for Hebrew Studies- a companion site for the Shalom Comprehensive Course in Modern Hebrew
- Language Resource Center
- Jacob Richman's Hot Sites- Learn Hebrew
- Cornell Hillel
Persian, an Indo-European language related to English and German, was the vehicle of a rich and diverse Persianate culture that linked people from areas extending beyond Iran into the Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Caucasus and Anatolia. Until the mid-19th century, Persian was the official language of the Indian subcontinent, and Ottoman Turkish and Urdu (Pakistan) languages have been heavily influenced by Persian in their structure and vocabulary. It is the language of more than 110 million people around the world and is the official language of Iran (as Farsi), Afghanistan (as Dari) and Tajikistan (Tajik) – three vitally important countries for U.S. foreign affairs in the Middle East and Central Asia.
Persian is a sought-after language in international organizations, development and aid agencies, government agencies, journalism, think tanks and NGOs. There is a demand but a low supply of qualified Persian-speaking experts. Many of our students study Persian every year to prepare for employment in government agencies and international organizations. Our students are also often graduate students working in the fields of history, literature and art pertaining to India, Central Asia and Turkey. Persian is a necessary skill for scholars who carry out field work and research on art, literature, history of Central Asia, Caucasus, Iran and Anatolia.
Persian language placement exam: contact Iago Gocheleishvili
Opportunities outside the classroom:
Professor Gocheleishvili holds weekly Persian/Farsi dinners, Mondays, 6:30 - 8 p.m. in the Common Room of Flora Rose house during the semester. Dinners are open to all.
For more information on the Persian/Farsi dinners and courses, contact Iago Gocheleishvili.
Persian language courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- PERSN 1320 - Elementary Persian/Farsi I
- PERSN 1321 - Elementary Persian/Farsi II
- PERSN 1322 - Intermediate Persian/Farsi I
- PERSN 2322 - Intermediate Persian/Farsi II
- Prof. Iago Gochelleishvili's Persian Language website
The history of the language is divided into three main groups, old Turkish (from the 7th to the 13th centuries), mid-Turkish (from the 13th to the 20th), and new Turkish from the 20th century onwards. During the Ottoman Empire period, many Arabic and Persian words were intermixed in the Turkish language. Turkish formed the basis for Ottoman Turkish, the written language of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Turkish was basically Turkish in structure but with a heavy overlay of Arabic and Persian vocabulary and an occasional grammatical influence. Ottoman Turkish co-existed with spoken Turkish, with the latter being considered a "gutter language" and not worthy of study. Ottoman Turkish and the spoken language were both represented with an Arabic script.
In 1928, a "new language" movement was started by Kemal Ataturk. Five years after the proclamation of the Republic, the Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Roman one, which in turn sped up the movement to purge the language of foreign words. The Turkish Language Institute (Turk Dil Kurumu) was established in 1932 to carry out linguistic research and contribute to the natural development of the language. Today, literacy rates in Turkey are over 90%. In classes at Cornell students will learn and practice this "new" Turkish.
Turkish language placement exam: contact Banu Ozer-Griiffin
Opportunities outside the classroom:
The Cornell Language House holds weekly Conversation Hours with native Turkish speakers. These are open to everyone. The Spring 2018 schedule is TBD. Contact Banu Ozer-Griffin for more information.
Turkish language courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- TURK 1330 - Elementary Turkish I
- TURK 1331 - Elementary Turkish II
- TURK 1332 - Intermediate Turkish I
- TURK 2332 - Intermediate Turkish II
- TURK 3330 - Advanced Turkish
In academic year 2015-16, NES had the largest Akkadian language enrollments in the country. Knowledge of this language is considered crucial both for preparing undergraduates for graduate study and for preparing our graduate students for research projects in this language.
Akkadian was the major Semitic language of ancient Mesopotamia. It was written in the cuneiform script, which was also used to write Sumerian, Elamite, Hurrian and Hittite. Akkadian is attested in writing from the mid-third millennium BCE until the early first millennium CE, and during this long span of time it became the vehicle for literature and scholarship as well as for practical record-keeping, legal documents, correspondence and public inscriptions. The Akkadian language and the cuneiform script were adopted as the international medium of written communication throughout the ancient Near East, from Iran to Egypt, during the second millennium BCE.
Akkadian language courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- AKKAD 1410 - Akkadian Language I: Code of Hammurabi
- AKKAD 1411 - Elementary Akkadian II: Historical and Literary Texts
- AKKAD 3412 - Akkadian Language III: Archival, Political, and Economic Texts
- AKKAD 3414 - Akkadian Language IV: Assyrian Language
- AKKAD 6410 - Akkadian I: Code of Hammurabi
- AKKAD 6411 - Elementary Akkadian II: Historical and Literary Texts
- AKKAD 6412 - Akkadian III: Archival, Political, and Economic Texts
- AKKAD 6414 - Akkadian Language IV: Assyrian Language
For more information on taking an Akkadian class, please contact Jonathan Tenney.
Biblical Hebrew is the language in which the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) was originally written, before its translation into Greek and later Latin and other languages of the diaspora. Reading the Bible in Hebrew provides students with insight into the cultural, social and political world of ancient Israel in a way that is impossible when reading texts in translation. Students gain a deeper understanding of who the Israelites were, what God or gods they worshipped, how they worshipped, how their rituals developed, who their closest neighbors were and how the conceived of their enemies. As an ancient language, biblical Hebrew consists of words that are themselves artifacts. When considered in their ancient Near Eastern linguistic context they bring the ancient past into the present, and the Bible comes into focus not just as a foundational document in Western culture, but as an unparalleled literary achievement of the ancient Near East.
Biblical Hebrew language courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- HEBRW 1111 - Introduction to Biblical Hebrew
- HEBRW 4102 -Biblical Hebrew Prose: Samuel
- HEBRW 4103 - Biblical Hebrew Poetry
- HEBRW 6102 - Biblical Hebrew Prose: II Samuel
- HEBRW 6103 - Biblical Hebrew Poetry
For more information on Biblical Hebrew classes please contact Lauren Monroe.
Ancient Egyptians spoke an Afro-Asiatic language that is related to Semitic languages such as Arabic and Hebrew, and North African languages such as Berber and Ethiopic. It has been a dead language since the 11th century CE, replaced by Arabic starting in the 7th century CE.
The written word of the Ancient Egypt, however, has survived. For over two thousand years, from the Middle Kingdom (ca. 2100 BCE) into the Roman era, Egyptian monuments were inscribed with hieroglyphs of the Middle Egyptian writing system. This is the ‘classic’ form of the language in which were composed The Story of Sinuhe, The Eloquent Peasant and other works of diverse themes addressing history, cultic and erotic devotion, satire, biography and wisdom.
The first of two courses in Ancient Egyptian introduces students to the script, phonetics and structure of Middle Egyptian. Working with excerpts from actual ancient Egyptian texts, students learn to use a hieroglyphic sign list and dictionary, and transliterate hieroglyphs into a standardized form that facilitates study of grammar and syntax. This prepares students for the more advanced verbal forms and fuller texts studied in Ancient Egyptian II. Together, these two courses prepare students sufficiently to interpret Middle Egyptian compositions or interpret inscribed Egyptian monuments and artifacts. It also forms a basis for careers in Egyptology that might include studying other Egyptian writing systems such as Hieratic or Demotic.
Throughout these linguistic courses, we also use ancient texts as windows onto the dynamic social lives of the Egyptians, a people whose contributions to the Near East and world heritage is very much alive.
Hieroglyphic Egyptian language courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- HIERO 1450 - Ancient Egyptian I: Introduction to Middle Egyptian Hieroglyphs
- HIERO 1451 - Ancient Egyptian II: Introduction to Middle Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Sumerian is the language of ancient Sumer, which means that it was spoken in southern Mesopotamia from c. 3200-2000. It was written in the cuneiform script and it’s the first identifiable language that human beings ever wrote down. In fact, most Sumerologists agree that writing was invented specifically for the Sumerian language. Knowledge of Sumerian is of prime importance for reconstructing all aspects of Mesopotamian Civilization because its study carried on long after the language ceased to be spoken and because of the great breadth of documentation written in the language. Sumerian is not genetically related to any other known language, which is one reason why the language is not very well understood. The modern field of Sumerology was one of the first to reach out to the field of Linguistics and to adopt the power of computers and digital technology to study language.
All Sumerian courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- SUMER 3661 - Sumerian Language and Culture I
- SUMER 3662 - Sumerian Language and Culture II
- SUMER 6661 - Sumerian Language and Culture I
- SUMER 6662 - Sumerian Language and Culture II
For more information on Sumerian classes, please contact Jonathan Tenney.
Ugaritic was the language of the ancient city-state of Ugarit, located on the coast of Syria. This language, which belongs to the northwestern branch of the Semitic language family, is only verified in texts from the last two centuries of the Late Bronze Age (14th–13th centuries BCE), when, as well as writing in the Akkadian language using the Mesopotamian cuneiform script, the scribes and literati of Ugarit used a cuneiform version of the alphabet to write in their own language on clay tablets. They wrote myths, epics, ritual texts, letters, accounting records and contracts in the Ugaritic language. Their compositions are testimony to the Syro-Canaanite religion reflected in the Hebrew Bible, and these texts are therefore of great interest to scholars of the Bible and the ancient Near East.
All Ugaritic language courses offered by the Department of Near Eastern Studies:
- UGART 1430 - Ugaritic I
- UGART 1431 - Ugaritic II
For more information on Ugaritic classes, please contact Christianne Capalongo.